"Do you think that relations between Israel and Germany can be defined as normal relations between countries?"
by group comparison
Most respondents feel that the relations between Israel and Germany are normal relations between countries.
by degree of religiousness
As Jewish religiousness increases, the perception becomes that of relations that are not normal.
There has been not much change in the “different Germany” perception in comparison to 2011. (Base: Jews)
"Do you think today’s Germany is a 'different Germany' compared to the era before 1945?"
Most Jews feel that the today’s Germany is different than before 1945.
There has bee a very slight change in the the 'different Germany' perception in comparison to 2011. However, since this question has not been asked for 10 years, comparisons should be taken with caution. (Base: Jews)
"Do you think that the memory of the Holocaust affects German policy towards Israel?"
60% feel that the memory of the Holocaust affects German policy towards Israel in a positive way.
As Jewish religiousness increases, mention of a positive effect decreases, from 70% among secular Jews to 32% among Ultra-Orthodox.
"Do you think that in the foreseeable future the memory of the Holocaust in Germany ..."
56% expect the memory of the Holocaust to diminish in varying degrees. Only 7% think it will get stronger.
As Jewish religiousness increases, a higher percentage expect the memory to disappear, and a lower percentage expect it to get stronger or remain unchanged.
"The German Chancellor Angela Merkel stated in 2008 that Israel's existence is in Germany's national interest. Do you expect this approach to be adopted by the new government in Germany as well?"
52% (73% of those who answered the question) think that Angela Merkel’s approach towards Israel will continue after she leaves office.
- Expectations of continuity increase with age.
- Expectations of continuity decrease with Jewish religiousness, from 82% among secular Jews to 47% among Ultra-Orthodox (among those answering the question).
"Do you think Germany should play a role as a mediator between Israel and other countries in the Middle East?"
About 1/2 think that Germany should be involved in Middle East mediations, and about 1/3 think it shouldn’t.
- Support of German involvement decreases with the increase in Jewish religiosity.
- Support of German involvement is higher among 65+ years old (63%).
"In 2015, German Chancellor Angela Merkel decided to take in refugees. Do you think this decision is…. ?"
Only 22% support Merkel’s decision to take in refugees.
"Have you ever been to Germany, and if so - how many times have you been there?"
30% have visited Germany at least once – more than half of those at least twice.
- The percent of visitors, as well as the average number of visits, increases with age. However, this may be the result of more opportunities as years go by.
- The percent of visitors is higher among post HS/academics (38% in total), with no difference in average number of visits.
- The percent of visitors decreases with the increase in religiosity among Jews, from 44% among secular Jews to 5% among Ultra-Orthodox. Among visitors, too, the number of repeat visits decreases with religiosity.
- Among respondents with friends or family in Germany 57% visited at least once, and the average number of visits is 2.9.
"For what purpose were you in Germany? You can specify several purposes."
The main reasons for visiting Germany are tourist-related. Among Jews roots trips and visits of people living in Germany were also mentioned.
"Do you have any friends or family living in Germany?"
About 20% have friends or family living in Germany.
- 18-34 years old have fewer ties to people living in Germany (13-15% vs. 20-22%).
- The rate of ties decreases with Jewish religiosity – from 23% among secular Jews to 4% among Ultra-Orthodox.
"What do you think about Israelis living in Germany?"
About 60% feel that it is OK for Israelis to live in Germany.
- Acceptance of Israelis living in Germany tends to decrease with age, from 62% in the younger groups to 50-54% in the older groups.
- Acceptance increases with education.
- As Jewish religiousness increases, acceptance decreases, from 75% among secular Jews to 22% among Ultra-Orthodox.
"Have you been exposed to contemporary German culture, such as literature, film, music, television, sports, etc.? If so - please specify."
A little over 20% mentioned specific exposure to German culture. About half of those mentioned exposure to various sports. Various forms of art were mentioned.
- Males have been more exposed than females (28% vs. 16%, due to much higher rates of exposure to sporting events).
- Exposure increases with education.
- Exposure is higher among secular Jews (29% vs. 13-15% in other Jewish groups)
"Would you buy German products?"
About 2/3 of respondents are indifferent to German-originated products, and another 9% actually prefer them. Only 7% totally avoid products made in Germany.
- Avoidance of German-made products increases with the increase in Jewish religiosity.
- Total and partial avoidance is higher among 65+ years old (14% and 23%, respectively).
"Is hearing the German language in the public sphere (TV shows, guest speeches in the Knesset, plays) something that bothers you personally?"
About 60% are not bothered at all by hearing the German language in public, and less than 20% are always bothered.
As Jewish religiousness increases, total objection increases, and total support decreases.