"Do you consider the relations between Germany and Israel to be normal today?"
54,2 percent consider the relations to be normal. More men (65.5%) than women (only 43.3%) that current relations between both countries can be defined as normal.
by age group
Differences in agreement with the question about normal relationships between the two countries are also evident among the age groups. Both older and younger people are more likely to agree with the question, whereas less than half of the people in the middle age group of 41 to 60 years describe the relationships as normal.
"Do you think that the memory of the Holocaust still influences Germany's policy towards Israel today?"
Religious people are slightly more likely to think that Germany is more positive towards Israel (75 percent) than non-religious people (68.4 percent). What is striking here, however, is the difference between Catholic and Protestant respondents. The latter are more often of the opinion that Germany is more positive towards Israel (84.1 percent) compared to Catholic respondents (71.6 percent). 77 percent of Muslim people take the view that Germany has a more positive attitude towards Israel.
"To what extent do you agree with the following statement: 'Antisemitism is currently a problem in Germany.'"
58,4 percent consider Antisemitism in Germany to be a problem. More women (62,6 percent) than men (53,8 percent) think so.
"When you think of Germany, which population groups currently pose a significant threat of Antisemitism? You can choose several answers."
The majority (72,2 percent) locate the threat in the right-wing political camp.
70,1 percent locate the threat in the general population.
58 percent locate the threat among the muslim migrants.
21,7 percent locate the threat in the left.
"Some people say that criticism of Israel is a form of Antisemitism. On the other hand, it is argued that criticism of Israel does not necessarily have to be anti-Semitic. To what extent do you agree with the following statement. Israel can be criticised without the criticism being Antisemitic."
66,3 percent think that Israel can be criticised with the criticism being antisemitic. More men (71,6 percent) than women (61,4 percent) think so.
"In 2008, Angela Merkel said that the secure existence of Israel was part of Germany's raison d'état, i.e. in the national interest. Do you think that the new government will adopt this view?"
A clear majority of 69.6 percent of respondents assume that the new government will maintain Merkel's view of the raison d'état (Figure 4). 17.4 percent think not, while 11.7 percent are not sure. Women are more reticent about this question. The level of agreement with the question is slightly lower, while more women than men answered "Don't know."
based on migration history:
58.9 per cent of respondents with a migration history expect that safeguarding Israel's existence will continue to be a raison d’état for Germany. The figure for people without a migration history is significantly higher at 74.9 per cent.
Overall, the majority of all respondents do not expect any significant changes in relations under the new government (see Figure 6): 76.2 percent believe that relations will remain the same, while 8 percent expect an improvement and 10.4 percent a deterioration. On average, however, women are somewhat more optimistic: while only 4.7 percent of men expect an improvement, 11.2 percent of women do so.
"Do you think Germany should play a mediating role between Israel and other countries in the Middle East?"
by age group
"Angela Merkel will soon no longer be Chancellor. Do you think that relations between Germany and Israel will change afterwards?"
"During the Israel-Gaza conflict in May 2021, the German government declared its support for Israel's right to self-defence. Do you agree?"
by gender, migration history, and East/West origin
Have you ever been to Israel?
"What was the reason for your trip to Israel? You can choose several answers."
Of the 1011 people surveyed in the study, 137 say they have already been to Israel. This corresponds to 13.6 per cent. 90 of them have been to Israel once, 25 twice and the rest more often (up to 10 times).
Of these 137 people, 79 are men (57 per cent), 119 come from the western states (87 per cent) and 118 are people without a migration history (86 per cent). On average, people who have already visited Israel are 63 years old. Almost two thirds of the people are over 60.
The majority of respondents state that the reason for their stay (Figure 9) was a holiday or recreational trip. Business trips, religious reasons and cultural events or sporting events are given by about one fifth of the respondents. Visiting family and friends is the rarest occasion with about 10 percent of the mentions. School trips, educational trips and an interest in the country and culture are mentioned in particular in the free answers for the “Other” category.
"Can you recall any recent exposure to Israeli contemporary cultural offerings such as literature, film, music, television or sports?"
Less than a third remembered having recently come into contact with Israeli contemporary cultural offerings such as literature, film, music, television or sport. However, in many cases there is no clear distinction between Jewish and Israeli cultural offers.
The Netflix series "Unorthodox" is also mentioned several times, although it is a German production about ultra-orthodox Jews situated in Berlin. In addition, more references are made to sports, especially football.